Three state-of-the-art thin-film coating apparatus capable of depositing a variety of metallic and dielectric materials are being used for the development of a wide range of thin-film optics of highest quality for the spectral range extending from the infrared (wavelength several micrometres) to the soft-X-ray regime (several nanometres).
Spectrometry and loss measurement
Our Lambda-950 (Perkin Elmer) spectrophotometer allows precision transmitivity and reflectivity measurements over the spectral range spanning from the border of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) at 180 nm to the mid infrared (mid-IR) at about 3.3 ?m. The absolute accuracy of transmission measurements is 0.1% and the maximal reflectivity that can be measured is 99.9%. At selected wavelengths: 808, 1030 and 1550 nm, our LossPro™ (Novawave Technologies) precision reflectometer and optical lossmeter offers much higher accuracy. It enables high performance optical components to be characterized with ultra-high precision. The system utilizes the proven cavity ringdown technique to determine reflectance and losses in thin films and optical substrates. Reflectance from 98 % to 99.9995 % or total optical loss ranging from 2 % to 0.0005 % can be determined with sub-ppm-level precision.
is equipped with two LeyboldOptics magnetrons and a plasma source, providing thus plasma/ion assisted reactive dual magnetron sputtering. Short process time even for complex multilayer systems is enabled by high deposition rates. The films realized have higher refractive index than the ones achievable with electron beam evaporation, indicating very dense layers. As a consequence, the layers are extremely shift-free. Covering spectral range: 250-3000 nm, substrate diameter up to 100 mm. It situates in a clean room (ISO 4, ~100 particles in cubic foot) at LMU in Garching, Am Coulombwall 1 (rooms E6-E9).
(LeyboldOptics) is an e-beam system. It has a novel process control part that convinces with maximum automation. Besides great flexibility, it guarantees the highest performance and productivity. Syrus mainly loaded with simple (non-dispersive) coatings. Syrus can produce “big optics” with diameter about 265 mm and thickness 65 mm. Syrus has a possibility to produce optics for the spectral range from 200 nm to 10 µm. It locates at LMU in Garching, Am Coulombwall 1 (Rooms E6-E9).
The IBD-O is a Dual Ion Beam Deposition system manufactured by Veeco Instruments. It is equipped with two inductively coupled ion beam plasma sources, one of those directed onto the target to ablate the target materials there, the other one directed onto the substrate for optional ion beam assisted deposition. The possibility of in-situ spectral ellipsometry (NIR-UV) allows sub-nanometer process control during deposition. Ion Beam deposition is known to produce very dense and smooth layers in a very stable process. The UHV background vacuum pressure of 10-8 Torr ensures also clean layers.
All that is essentially important for XUV mirrors which are exclusively produced with the IBD-O, where each deposited layer is limited to 1-5 nm thickness and tens to hundreds of layers are formed. Up to 4 target materials are selectable and up to 8 inch substrates are loaded by a load lock system. The system is operating in a class 1000 clean room (ISO 4) at the MPQ in Garching.